日本基督教団 The United Church of Christ in Japan

Cooperative Research Committee on Kyodan-KCCJ History Convenes 3rd Meeting:


The Agreement on Cooperative Ministries and Changes in the Kyodan's Understanding of Mission
On Feb. 8, 1984, The Korean Christian Church in Japan (KCCJ) and Kyodan concluded an agreement on cooperation in ministry for the purpose of encouraging mission cooperation and a deepening of fellowship between the two churches. Based on this agreement, the Kyodan's Mission Cooperation Committee established the Cooperative Research Committee on Kyodan-KCCJ History in June 2009 at its 43rd regular meeting. The committee is made up of three members from each denomination. The Kyodan general secretary attends as an observer, and the office work is managed by the Kyodan.
At the first committee meeting held on Sept. 21, 2010, discussion centered on issues of cooperative ministry to be considered, and a decision was made to begin by reflecting on the history of the two denominations. At the second meeting on Dec. 9, 2010, committee member Lee Chong-Il used a chronological table to introduce in great detail the history of the KCCJ, from its beginning in 1883, through the establishment of the present KCCJ in 1908, and up through its recent history.
During the wave of Westernization that opened the door to modernization in the late 19th century, the countries of East Asia experienced many changes. The tempo of change in Japan and Korea was slightly different, and that in combination with a number of other factors, created the situation in which Japan annexed the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century and eventually found itself going through the tragic days of World War II.
This history influenced the Christian church in both countries. The KCCJ was born into this period of history and witnessed to the gospel in the midst of the suffering and oppression of Korean people living in Japan. Japan and Korea were "near but distant neighbors," and as emotions subside, the people of both countries are seeking an improved relationship in the 21st century. The Kyodan and the KCCJ were, in fact, precursors of this time through their establishment of the Agreement on Cooperative Ministries in 1984, their testimony to the rule of God in their mission of witness to the gospel, their prayers together for peace and human rights, and their commitment to work together.
The third committee meeting was held on March 10, 2011, the day before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Harita Makoto, a Kyodan member of the committee, spoke about changes in the Kyodan's concept and understanding of mission and the historical events that took place in the Kyodan from the 1960s through to the 1980s, when the agreement with KCCJ was formalized.
Because of differences about the understanding of mission within the church, the Kyodan experienced a long and aggravated period of internal dissension after 1969. Little by little, the Kyodan is trying to overcome this dissension, and in that sense, it is both meaningful and essential to reflect on the concepts of mission of the past as we consider the future mission cooperation of the Kyodan and KCCJ. The essence of Harita Makoto's presentation was as follows.
The Kyodan was formed in 1941 as a grouping of the evangelical (Protestant) churches active in Japan at the time, and soon found itself embroiled in World War II. It was actually very difficult for the Kyodan to identify itself adequately as a "united church," and in the confusion following the war, several denominations withdrew. The understanding of mission and concrete plans for carrying out the church's work were only discussed in earnest in the late 1950s after the "Christianity boom," which had given the church a euphoric vision for the future of Christianity in Japan, had died down. Church leaders were studying concepts of mission that were developing in Europe and North America, and in the early 1960s the Kyodan issued its own Mission Policy and Basic Theory of Mission, calling for a "structural improvement" of the church so that the gospel could become available to all people and for an approach to evangelism that was clearly directed to specific areas.
The Basic Policy on Social Issues was drafted in 1966, with statements on the importance of acknowledging its wartime responsibility, the protection of democracy, and the advance of social welfare activity. The 1967 Confession of War Responsibility issued in the name of the Kyodan moderator had an influence both within and beyond the church. The confession opened the possibility for cooperative agreements with three representative denominations in Korea and with the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan. It made possible discussions about union with the church in Okinawa, which was still under U.S. occupation. However, at the same time, discussions about the place of the confession in the Kyodan, its interpretation, and the way in which it should be used caused confusion and division within the church.
The longstanding, internal dissension in the Kyodan occurred while the cold war were at loggerheads; while the philosophy of Mao Zedong was at its peak in China; and while Japan, not untouched by this, was going through a period of social confusion. In 1982 the Kyodan Commission on Mission issued a Review of the Basic Policy on Social Issues, which included materials for discussion on the basic concerns of mission and the place of social issues within those concerns as well as articles on mission by the Kyodan from the 1970s through to the 1980s. Social issues were presented as primary mission concerns; there was radical criticism of Japan's post-war democracy; and the church was called to stand clearly with the oppressed and to open its ears to their voices. (Tr. RW)
―Harita Makoto, pastor
Toriizaka church, Southwest subdistrict, Tokyo
第3回UCCJ・KCCJ歴史共同研 究委員会
 両教団は教会的交わりを深めて宣教協力関係を促 進するために1984年 に宣教協約を結びました。協約に基づいて設置された宣教協力委員会は2009年6月開催の第43回委員会においてUCCJ・KCCJ歴史共同研 究委員会の立ち上げを決定しました。
 歴史共同研究委員会は両教団からそれぞれ3名ず つ計6名の委員によって 構成され、UCCJ総幹事が陪 席、事務はUCCJが担当する ことになっています。最初の委員会を2010年9月21日に開催して、共同研究の枠組みについて協議し、両教団それぞれの歴史を相互に理 解しあうことから作業を始めることになりました。
 2010年12月9日第2回委員会において、KCCJの李清一 (イ・チョンイル)委員がKCCJの歴史年表 に沿って1883年からの前史と、1908年から今日にいたるKCCJの歩みを詳細に紹介してくださいました。
 西洋文明の波は19世紀後半の東アジアに近代化 への扉を開き、東アジア 諸国はそれぞれ大きな変化を経験しました。日韓は近代化のテンポに違いがあり、種々な要素が重なって、20世紀前半には日本による朝鮮半 島統治、そして、第二次世界大戦という不幸な時代を過ごしました。両国キリスト教の関係もその影響を免れることはありませんでした。KCCJはそのよう な歴史の中で誕生し、在日韓国・朝鮮人の方々の困難な歩みのただ中で福音を証ししてこられました。「近くて遠い隣国」と表される両国の関 係、また、国民感情は21世紀になって漸く改善されようとしていますが、それに先立ち、UCCJとKCCJは1984 年の宣教協約により、福音宣教によって神のご支配を証しし、平和と人権擁護のために祈り、協力しあう関係を結ぶことができました。
 2011年3月10日、東日本大震災の前日でし たが、第3回委員会が開 催され、UCCjの張田眞 (はりた・まこと)委員が、1960年代から宣教協約が結ばれる1980年代までにUCCJにおいて提 起された宣教概念とその変遷を歴史的出来事にそって紹介しました。
 宣教理解の違いによりUCCJは1969 年以降、長く深刻な内部対立を経験してきました。漸くその対立を乗り越えるべき時代を迎えようとしていますが、その視点から、過去の種々 な宣教概念を反省的に捉えることはUCCJとKCCJとの宣教協 約関係の将来にとって有益かつ必須なことで あります。発題はおおよそ下記のごとくです。
 UCCJは1941 年に日本にある福音主義教会諸教派が合同し て設立されましたが、すぐに第2次世界大戦に突入したこと、また、大戦後の混乱期に旧教派の一部が次々に離脱するなどして合同教会として の十分な内実を整えることは容易ではありませんでした。宣教論と宣教方策が真剣に議論されるようになったのは、キリスト教の将来に幻想を いだかせた大戦直後のキリスト教ブームが去った1950年代後半からでした。当時の欧米における種々な宣教論に学びつつ、1960年代初 頭に宣教方策、宣教基礎理論が作成され、すべての人に福音を伝えるために、「教会の体質改善」の必要が説かれ、「職域伝道」と呼ばれる地 域や職業別の伝道アプローチが模索されました。また、1966年には社会問題基本方策が作成され、戦争責任と戦後民主主義の擁護、社会福 祉事業の推進が謳われました。1967年の議長声明「第二次大戦下における日本基督教団の責任に関する告白」は内外に大きな影響を与えま した。韓国の代表的な3教派との宣教協約、台湾長老教会との宣教協約、当時まだアメリカ合衆国の占領下にあった沖縄の沖縄キリスト教団と の教会合同などへと機運を高めるとともに、他方、声明の位置づけ、解釈、取り扱いを巡って内部では混乱と亀裂を生み出しました。
 UCCJの長く深刻 な内部対立と紛争は、東西対立が深刻化し、 中国大陸では毛沢東思想が席巻した時代、日本においてもその影響を受けて大きな社会的混乱を経験した時代に起こりました。そして、 1982年に宣教委員会から提出された「社会活動基本方針『再検討』」に関する「討議資料ー宣教の本質的課題としての社会活動の位置づ け」の中に、1969年から教団を指導し始め1990年代半ばまで続いた宣教論が言語化されました。そこには社会問題への関わりが宣教の 課題そのものとされ、戦後民主主義へのラディカルな批判が展開され、抑圧された人々の立場にたつ現場からの言葉に聴くことなどが主張され ています。

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